70 Eclipse Reports from Antiquity
reported year, conventional identification, alternative retrocalculation, deviation of dates
    

Remark: If there were no logical interrelation between the historical eclipses and the retocalculated ones, one should expect just a few matches and no cumulation for particular spans of deviation.

In fact, from the traditionally reported eclipses, 17 deviate by 300 and 2 by 299 years from retocalculation. 12 of these show the exactly identical deviation with 300 years minus 46 days (i.e. 109529 days = 15647 weeks = 3709 synodical months). Another 10 eclipses deviate by 354 years minus 13 days!


Source of historical report

Type
S|M

Retrocalc.
konv. [yr CE.]

Sort,
cover

Comment:   sort, place
  visibility   « cons. || alt. »

Retrocalc.
alternative

Dev: yrs
+days

Ugarit

T

21. Jan -1191

93%

«  14h || T. Mars, 12h»

4. Jul. -856

+325

†Patroklos Troia

T

SSW -420auc

T

 « Noon, Karatepe  »

4. Jul. -856

+300

L. Tarrut. ~-20auc

S

15. Jun -762

V

« 62% || 93%: Rome »

30. Apr. -462

+300

Babylon, sun darkS15. Jun -76280%« || R: Babylon »14. Jun. -393+369

Antimachus

S

25. Jun. -744

54%

« A. of.Theos || A. of Colophon »

17. Feb. -477

+267

† Romulus 37.

S

17. Jul. -709

T

« T: Rom »

21. Jun. -399

+310

Almagest:1 Mardok

M

19. Mar. -720

T

«dT=21650 || dT=15770»

6. Mär. -366

+354-13d

2 Mardokempad

M

8. Mar. -719

>25%

« 12% || 68%  »

23. Feb. -365

+354-13d

2 Mardokempad

M

01. Sep. -719

>50%

«  50% || T  »

9. Aug. -365

+354-13d

Maximus Thyrus

R

27. Jun. -660

R

«  T: Clazomenae  »

14. Aug -309

+351

Archilochus

T

6. Apr. -676

T

«  9-10 h || T: noon  »

16. Aug. -309

+338

Psammetrich

T

30. Sep. -609

40%

« T: Baltic || T. Assiut »

16. Sep. -255

+354-13d

Halys, HerodotT28. May  -584T« T: forenoon »5. May -229+355
Sardis, LykiaT17. Feb. -47780%«|| spring, morning  T: »15. Apr. -135+342
SalamisT2. Oct. -47958%«  || T: Salamis  » 7. Sep. -124+355

Thukydides

T

3. Aug. -430

R

«  || T: Athens, Stars  »

19. Jul. -103

+327

Thukydides

S

21. May -423

V

«60%, yr.8 || P: begin Summer»

29. Jun. -93

+330

Thukydides

M

27. Aug. -412

M

« yr 18 Pelopon. War || »

3. Jul. -84

+322

Xenoph: PeisanderS14. Aug. -393P« Boeotia, crescent || »8. May -72+321

Plutarch: Pelopidas

S

13. Juli -363

P

« 80% || sunrise 57% »

31. Jul. -39+324
Ennius ~350aucS21. Jun. -399T« Rome, morning »28. May -63+336
Cuneiform Tab.S11. Apr. -36843%« sunrise || 9h 87% »7. Apr. -23+345
†Philipp MacedonS4. Jul. -33579%«T: Egypt || Pella»21. Jun. 19+354 -13d
GaugamelaM20. Sep. -330T«Ecl. +Jupiter↓ +Saturn↑»7. Sep. 24+354 -13d
BabylonS6. Oct. -330T«predict 4 m. after sunset»21. Sep. 24+354 -13d
Livy  XXXVII.4

S

17. Jul. -187

T

« P: 5 Id.Jul, Rom 50% »

4. Jul. 167

+354 -13d

Cuneiform Tab.S15. Apr. -135T«T:Babylon MeVeMaJ S»2. Apr. 219+354 -13d

Agathocles

S

15. Aug. -309

T

« T: Syracuse »

30. Jun. -09

+300 -46d

Livy XLIV Pydna 

M

22. Jun. -167

T

 « Summers end, 4.9.? »

22. Sep. 144

+301

Julius Obsequens

S

19. Jul. -103

R

     Julius O. lived in 4th cy. A.D.:

3. Jun. 197

+300 -46d

Julius Obsequens

S

29. Jun. -93

R

3 eclipses separated 10 + 30 yrs

14. May 207

+300 -46d

Julius Obsequens

S

-59 ?

X

       ||  evening  »

12. Apr. 237

+300

Augustus' deadS<18. Aug. 14 ??V

|| R: Nola/Naples »

27. Jul. 306>292
PhlegonS202. OlympiadT|| R. Rome/Alexandria  »17. Jul. 334+297

Agrippina
C: Vips.+Font.

S

30. Apr. 59

80%

|| T: Rome Campania+Armenia»

15. Mar. 359

+300 -46d

Plut.: Chaironaia

T

20. Mar. 71

T

« morning || afternoon »

20. Nov. 393

+322

†Nerva 

S

Jan 98

93%

||  Rom »

20. Nov. 393

+300 -46d

Hadrian & Sal.

S

3. Sep. 118

T

|| T: Rom »

19. Juli 418

+300 -46d

Elias Nisibis

S

14. Jan. 484

T

Peroz: Battle at Herat

14. Jan. 484

+0

Agapius SyriaS29. Apr. 534T« T: Antiochia »29. Apr. 534+0

Vita Gordianorum

ST

6. Aug. 240

65%

|| T: Rome »

20. Jun. 540

+300 -46d

Cons. Const. 291

S

4. May 292

75%

|| R: Constantinople »

4. Oct. 590

+299

Theophilact Simoc.S4. Oct. 590R« R: Constantinople »4. Oct. 590+0
Kopt. Ostracon 38S10. Mar. 601T« T: Alexandria »10. Mar. 601+0

Cons. Const. 318

S

6. May 319

85%

|| R: Constantinople »

4. Nov. 617

+299

Aurelius Victor

S

6. May 319

X

« 317 || R: Pannonia, sunrise »

4. Nov. 617

+300

Stephan Alex.S4. Nov. 617R« R: Constantinople »4. Nov. 617+0
Pappus Alexandr.S18. Oct 320X

 || 35% SR Alexandria »

5. Oct. 674+354-13d

Theon of Alexand

S

16. Jun. 364

V

« Baltic (!)  || T: Alexand. »

3. Jun. 718**

+354-13d

Theophanes S 6. Jun. 346 T « T: Alexandria || T: C'nople  » 5. Nov. 644 +298
TheophanesS9. Oct. 34870%«  || 90% C'nople  »21. Apr. 646+298

Zosimus  6.9.394

S

20. Nov. 393

T

          || 95% at Frigidus »

5. Oct. 693

+300 -46d

Chron Gallorum 418

S

17. May 421

40%

               || T. Rome 80% »

3. Jun. 718

+300

Ann. Lundin. 448

ST

23. Dec. 447

80%

            || T: London »

1. Sep. 753

+307

Hydatius

ST

19. Jul. 418

T

 « T: Portugal »

3. Jun. 718

+300 -46d

Hydatius

S

22. Dec. 447

T

       «  || 70% Portugal »

7. Nov. 747

+300 -46d

Hydatius

M

4. Sep. 451

81%

|| T: »

31. Jul. 752

+301

Hydatius

M

2. Mar. 462

P

|| T: »

4. Jan. 763

+301

M. Neapolitanus

ST

14. Jan. 484

U

« invisible at Athens || T: Crete »

3. Apr. 786

~301

Bede° 16. Feb 538 S540 ?V || R: Scotland  »11. Feb 807+300 -31J.
Bede 20. June 540 ST 29. Jun. 512
V «  T: Rome || R: » 16. Jul. 809 +300 -31J.
Gregory of Tours

S

3. Oct. 563

60%

« Mid Aug.|| R: South. France »

18. Aug. 863

+300 -46d

Gregory of Tours

M

18. Sep. 563

58%

  || 20% 'nec quarta pars' ? »

3. Aug. 863

+300 -46d

Gregory of Tours

M

11. Dec. 577

64%

|| T:'in nigridinem conv.'  »

20. Apr. 878

+301

G. of Tours ides Aug.

S

4. Oct. 590

65%

       || R: Central France  »

8. Aug. 891

+301

†MuhammedS27. Jan 63277%« 28 Shawwal, 9h Mecca »27. Jan 632+0

Michael t. Syrian

S

14. May 812

T

« T: Athens / Syria  »

14. May 812

+0

Theophanes Chr.

S

4. May 813

T

« 97% Constantinople  »

4. May 813

+0

Ann.Fuldenses
S12. May 841T« 'Day before Ascension'»5. May 840-1


Abbreviations: S= Solar eclipse, T= Total solar ecl., R= Ring-shaped solar eclipse, U= Unreal, no match ;
V= visible only with eye-protection if eclipse was expected; X= No matching event; M= Moon eclipsed

*) The Livius date is 'five days before the Ides of July' (3 leap days?).

**) Year and date Could be retrocalculated knowing the 'Exeligmos' (= 3 Saros Cycles, i.e. slightly more than 54 years) from the real solar eclipses (Constantinople 693; Alexandria 718 C.E.).

°) This unique pair of eclipse dates matches retrocalculation - exept for the year. The dates of Bede may have undergone a correction for the new moon day (on Feb. 15th 538 and June 20th 540). 


References:

Historical reports:
Demandt, Alexander: Verformungstendenzen in der Überlieferung antiker Sonnen- und Mondfinsternisse
[Deformation-tendencies (!) within the tradition of antique solar and lunar eclipses],
Mainz 1970, (Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur).

R. Gautschy, Eclipsecitations:  www.gautschy.ch/~rita/archast/solec/eclipsecitations.pdf

Ginzel, F. K.: Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologie Bd II + III, 1914 http://www.archive.org/stream/handbuchdermathe02ginzuoft#page/522 http://www.archive.org/stream/handbuchdermathe03ginzuoft#page/n5

Modern retrocalculation:
Espenak, Fred: Solar Eclipse Atlas: http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/SEatlas/SEatlas.html



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